Monday, March 2, 2020

Canine Eosinophilic Furunculosis

Canine Eosinophilic Furunculosis

Transmission or Cause: The exact etiology and pathogenesis of this disease is not completely known but it is proposed to be due to an insect bite/sting which then triggers an acute allergic reaction.

Affected Animals:  This is most common in young, adult large-breed dogs, possibly owing to their lifestyle and inquisitive behavior.

Clinical Signs: Sudden onset of papules, nodules, crusts, ulceration, and bleeding lesions primarily affecting the bridge of the nose, muzzle, ears, and skin surrounding the eyes. Rarely, the skin of the abdomen and/or chest may also be affected. The majority of dogs are not itchy but some may experience pain associated with the facial lesions. Some dogs may feel ill can develop fever, decreased appetite, and/or lethargy. The lesions are typically sterile but a secondary bacterial infection may develop.

Diagnosis: Diagnosis of eosinophilic furunculosis is suspected in dogs with a suggestive history and classical, striking facial lesions. Skin cytology shows numerous eosinophils and blood work may show an elevated number of eosinophils. A skin biopsy reveals intense inflammation, characterized predominately by eosinophils, which generally center around hair follicles.

Treatment: Systemic glucocorticoid therapy (steroids) is very effective, with the majority of dogs responding rapidly within 24 to 48 hours. Lesions are typically completely resolved within 10 to 14 days of starting therapy. Systemic antibiotics and/or pain medications may also be indicated.

Prognosis: The prognosis is excellent and recurrences are rare, suggesting that dogs learn to avoid the offending insect/allergen.

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